CLEP-2 Day 14 Reading/Test Material - Assessment & Evaluation in Learning Youtube Webinar Live

CLEP-2 Day 14 Reading/Test Material - Assessment & Evaluation in Learning Youtube Webinar Live. Session-14 Topic is Assessment & Evaluation in Learning . Webinar-14 Reading Material Assessment & Evaluation in Learning. DAY 14 OF CLEP -II WEBINAR SERIES SCERT, AP.On " Assessment & Evaluation in learning" by Mr. Suman Bandi, Teacher Trainer, Regional Institute of English, Bangalore

CLEP-2 Day 14 Reading/Test Material - Assessment & Evaluation in Learning  Youtube Webinar Live

The significance of Assessment
Assessment is a very important element of curriculum design because this is where teachers and students get to see if all their hard work has paid off. Can students demonstrate mastery in terms of the knowledge and skills they need to learn? Where are the gaps and where are the points of strength? Assessment, in a constructively aligned curriculum, must reflect the learning outcomes listed in the curriculum, and must draw in both the knowledge and the practical and intellectual skills and competencies that students have been taught and that they have practiced in classes.

Assessment & Evaluation
Assessment is a process of collecting, reviewing and using data for the purpose of improvement in the current performance. It provides feedback on performance and areas of improvement. It is process oriented. It is based on observation and feedback. It is formative in nature.
Evaluation is an act of passing judgement on the basis of set of standards. It determines the extent to which objectives are achieved. It is product oriented. It is based on the level of quality as per set standard. It is summative in nature

Formative & Summative Assessment
An assessment is formative in nature when the teachers use it to check the progress of their students, to see how far they have mastered knowledge/ability/skill and then use this information to modify their future teaching plans. Such assessment can also be basis for feedback to students.

Informal tests, quizzes, simple observation of performance and study of student portfolios etc. can be used in formative assessment. Students themselves can be encouraged to carry out self-assessment in order to monitor their own progress.

Summative assessment is used at the end of a lesson, term, semester or year in order to measure the level of achievement of the learners. As it sums up what the students have achieved, it looks back and indicates what the students have learnt, usually measured formally against clearly defined standards. Formal tests are usually used for this purpose.

Reflection:
Do you use it in your classroom? Where/When? What is formative assessment?
Do you use it in your classroom? Where/When?
Which of the above types of assessment do you use frequently? 

Assessment for learning: Assessment for learning is an approach, integrated into teaching and learning, which creates feedback for students and teachers in order to improve learning and guide their next steps

The purpose of assessment as a part of learning:
 Before teaching
• To discover the needs, interests, and previous experiences of students
• To find out what students already know and can do
• To determine a particular approach or strategy

During teaching
• To assess students' understanding and progress
• To identify successes or difficulties and confidence levels
• To assess students' abilities to verbalize their understanding and insights
• To assess students' abilities to work together while sharing ideas and completing tasks

After teaching

• To find out what the students have learned
• To determine the quality of students' learning
• To gauge the effectiveness of the activities and approach in relation to the objectives and goals for language
• To reflect on teaching practice.
(Adapted from the book ‘Teaching the Language Arts’ by Cathy Collins Block, 1997)

Assessment tools
There are various tools can be used for classroom assessment. The following are most commonly used to assess language ability:
  • 1. Tests
  • 2. Alternative assessment
  • • Observation (structured & unstructured)
    • Interview
    • Assignments
    • Projects
    • Group Discussions
  • • Experiments
  • 3. Teacher Assessment
  • 4. Continuous assessment
  • 5. Self-assessment
  • 6. Portfolios
Reflection:
• Try to think of the tools you’re already using in your classrooms
• Identify the tools you think can be used in the primary classrooms
• Think of any tools specific to English or EVS or Maths classes

Continuous Comprehensive evaluation (CCE)

In all systems of education there is a common curriculum, a fixed syllabus and a prescribed text book. This is common for the whole class (in a particular state, or even the whole country), and it is meant for the average child at that level. This cannot be avoided, but we need to be aware of it. All our students do not learn in the same way; one student likes definitions while another may like examples. A textbook cannot be written to cater to the various needs of different students in many classes and schools. Also, individual understandings and interpretations cannot be taken into account in a textbook. The syllabus is pre-determined; it assumes that all children learn everything in the same way and at the same pace.

Children, however, do not learn everything at the same time or at the same speed. They learn the same things in different ways and often excel in different subjects.
  • • Some children like to see things to remember them.
  • • Some children prefer to repeat it for themselves.
  • • Some children learn through examples.
  • • Some children are good with languages.
  • • Some are good with mathematics and some with sciences. They learn mathematical concepts quickly, but may need help with reading and writing.
As teachers, we know our students individually, and we modify our teaching to suit their varied ways of learning and their different capabilities. The teacher is the bridge between the common text book and the forty or fifty individual students in every class. We take what is in the text book and when needed, we modify it to suit our students. We do this by evaluating our students as they work.
This is an ongoing valuation, used only to monitor progress. It is called ‘pedagogic evaluation’.

We often give our students work to do. While they do it, we go around the class and see what they are doing. As we walk around, we can easily find out who has understood the concept, who has problems etc. If we find the most of the class has not understood something, we may decide to teach that concept or idea to the whole class again. If only one or two children have not understood, we may decide to teach them separately. Sometimes we may make a mental note of these problems and take it up for teaching in a later class. This is one kind of observation. But our work does not stop there. As we walk around the class, we also know which child is finding it difficult to write, or who is disturbing the others. We know who bullies whom, and who is withdrawn and shy or has same problem with studies. This understanding and awareness that we have of our students is similar to the ways in which a parent or caregiver knows and understands their children. The difference is that, as teachers, we teach many concepts; very often, we teach more than one subject. We also teach more than one class or section. We, therefore, need to record the information in some way so that we can remember it and also use it systematically to help our students learn better.

This understanding of our students, (continuous and ongoing, and also comprehensive) and its recording by us, to help us teach them better, is the essence of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE). It includes information about their strengths and weaknesses, their behavior and habits, and their relationships with other students. This is a ‘pedagogic evaluation’ and its purpose is to monitor learning and improve our teaching.

Difference between continuous and comprehensive evaluation

The two terms that begin with the letter ’C’ in CCE refer to two different aspects of education. The first ‘C’ stands for’ Continuous’ which refers to all scholastic or academic evaluation done by teachers of their students. This is about what the students are expected to study and whether they have managed to do that. If they have not, it does not mean we hold it against them. We try and find out what they have been able to achieve, what their problems are etc.

The second ‘C’ stands for ‘Comprehensive’. It includes features like personality, attitude, motivation etc. Thus, if we watch a child pushing another in class, or bullying a classmate, then that evaluation will be a part of comprehensive evaluation. What they do during lunch or in the playground is also comprehensive evaluation. Co-curricular activities and students’ performance in them are also recorded under comprehensive evaluation.

The question that we ask at this point is: If all this is CCE, who does it, how can it be done, and should there be experts to do CCE? The answers are very simple. No outsider (who does not teach the students) can do CCE. It is totally managed by teachers.

Features of CCE
CCE is not used to provide information about whether a student has achieved the learning objectives or has passed tests and examinations. That is available in final examination marks and report cards. Teachers can provide information about students that no one else can. We are the only ones who can state, ‘My student could not do something last month, but can do it a little better now ‘. We are the only people who can identify the shy or bold child in our class. Only we, as teachers in the classroom who teach students everyday will know the individual strengths and weaknesses of our students.

Sometimes we make mental notes of what these students can and cannot do. Sometimes we write them in a dairy and so not to forget them. These notes that we make and use later are a very important part of CCE. We also use this information to help us teach better. We can decide whether to re-teach something, give more practice or to move to the next unit. We can also use it to help us decide what should go into a teacher.-managed test.

The objectives for a unit, or lesson, are stated at the beginning of the book and that is what we teach. But all of us, as teachers, know that all the children in our class do not learn everything at the same time, at the same speed, or in the same way.

This is because individual ability varies, and children can learn and pickup what we teach them, only according to their abilities. Sometimes when we give a test, the principal of the school ask us how students have done. We may then look at the mark list, calculate the average, and say that on the whole, they have learnt the lesson. This is not CCE. Thus, system-oriented tests can never be the main source for CCE. Thus, CCE is an evaluation by an individual (the teacher) of each and every student as an individual in the class.

Recording and reporting information
There are many ways in which information can be recorded by teachers. We can keep a diary, or we can write down little notes about what happened in the class. It could be about

• what students have learnt, or have a problem with
• their handwriting or concentration
• their behavior in the classroom or in the play ground.

This is the information that we write down for ourselves. Sometimes we may want to share some of it with parents. In this sense, we are reporting information to parents, but not in a report card, and certainly not officially. If there is a parent- teacher meeting, we may share the information so that a parent is aware and if needed, can do something about it. We may have a child with learning difficulties and we may share this with the parent.

Feedback in CCE
Providing feedback is a very important part of CCE. Feedback is an essential part of any effective teaching/learning process. It helps students understand the subject being studied and gives them clear guidance on how to improve their learning. Academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior. This relationship is consistent regardless of grade, socioeconomic status, race, or school setting. Feedback can improve a student's confidence, self-awareness and enthusiasm for learning. Effective feedback can not only enhance learning but also improve assessment performance.

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