CLEP-2 Session-3 Reading Material for Test - 6th May - Webinar Youtube Link

CLEP-2 Session-3 (Day-3) Reading Material for Test - 6th May - Webinar Youtube Link. COMPREHENSIVE LEARNING ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM – II Reading Material Session 3 PREPARING TLM FOR THE CLASSROOM & PICTURES AND STORIES AS TRIGGERS FOR INTERACTION 06.05.2020. DAY 3 OF CLEP -II WEBINAR SERIES On "Preparing TLMs for Classroom, Picture and Stories as Triggers for Interaction" by Dr. Poornima Ravi, Academic Consultant, British Council School Ambassador. Youtube Link of Day-3 Webinar by APSCERT.

CLEP-2 Session-3 Reading Material for Test - 6th May - Webinar Youtube Link

Todays Webinars reading Material is in Two Parts - Part-I Preparing the TLM for the Class Room, and Part-II Pictures and Stories as triggers for interaction .

  • Part-1 deals with Types of TLM and Cone of Experience, Criteria and characteristics of  effective TLM, Planning and reflection of TLM, TLM Blue Print etc.
  • Part-II Pictures and stories as triggers for interaction, Learning Outcomes, Learning theory of instructional design, Suggested interactive engagements. 


During this session you will
  1. Gain a basic theoretical understanding of the role and purpose of TLM
  2. Receive practical strategies to incorporate TLM – planning and review 
  3. Adapt teacher’s role as a facilitator
  4. Raise awareness on classroom management
  • TLM is a commonly used acronym for Teaching-Learning Materials. The term is used to denote a collection of resources, aids, objects, realia and models. They are prepared by the teacher, the learner or an external source which is customized for the learning experience. TLM is often used in an activity-based approach to teaching. They provide a realistic experience in learning abstract concepts through tasks and activities. Activity-based learning incorporates a variety of resources and aids that promote student interaction to learn new concepts.
  • TLMs are designed based on concepts and learning outcomes that are to be achieved through a task/activity. Students gain an in-depth understanding of abstract concepts and also gain a skill/practical knowledge that is related to the concept. They promote student achievement through explorative experiences, reinforcement of practical knowledge and by providing supplementary learning processes.

Types of TLM

  • There is a wide variety of TLM available today that meet the requirements of different subjects. While a few are mentioned above, technology plays a vital role in building the list into a far more extensive one. Given the variety of options available for teachers it is important to understand the science behind how the teacher can make the most out of a TLM.
  • Edgar Dale, an American educator developed the ‘Cone of Experience’ which is also called as the ‘learning pyramid’. The cone is a visual representation of learning experience. According to Dale, real and concrete experiences are necessary to provide the right foundation for permanent learning.

The Cone of Experience

The cone serves as a tool for educators to identify the importance of creating meaningful learning experiences and choosing the right TLM that promotes active participation. It presents 3 modes of learning.
(i) Symbolic experience: Learning through abstraction 
This engagement involves reading or hearing symbols/signs that represent a word/concept. e.g. a mathematical theorem, grammar rules, scientific formulae etc.

(ii) Iconic experience: Learning through observation
This engagement involves interpreting information through observation e.g. images, recordings, designs, pictures/films, demos and sequences.

(iii) Direct and purposeful experience - Learning by doing
This engagement comprises of three different experiences that establish maximized learning –
  • Dramatized experiences (role plays, tableau, pantomime, puppet show etc.),
  • contrived experiences (models, specimens, simulations, objects etc.) and
  • direct, purposeful experiences (experiments, designing/creating, project work etc.). TLMs planned based on direct and purposeful experience are collaborative, interactive and realistic.
The cone helps teachers to reflect on their TLM before including it into the plan. The teacher can examine the resource/aid using the following questions
  • Does the resource/aid provide a realistic experience that can applied outside the classroom context?
  • Are there enough opportunities for practice and reinforcement?
  • Does the resource encourage experiential learning and critical thinking?
  • How far can concepts be ‘personalized’?


Planned with a purpose to achieve the learning outcomes of the lesson
  • Provides an opportunity for students to experience cause and effect in concepts
  • Gives a realistic experience of a real world setting
  • Is accessible, visible and usable by all students 
  • Are informative, educative and interesting
  • Are age appropriate and supported with a task
  • Is easy, safe and convenient to handle


Subject: Activity/Task :
What? (Roadmap to use) Specify the TLM. Elaborate on how you plan to use it in the classroom
Why? (Purpose of the TLM) Learning outcomes
When/where? Which stage or part of the lesson plan do you want to use the TLM and why
How? Specify time and student engagement : whole group/small group/pair/individual activity

  • Give clear and simple instructions
  • Sign-post material to students with a demo
  • Plan and fix classroom rules for use and interaction
  • Identify student leaders for ensuring that the rules are followed
  • Model the TLM and facilitate the session
  • Monitor how students interact and support each other
  • Identify students who might need more opportunities
  • Build rapport through praise, acknowledgement and feedback
  • Encourage student groups to ask questions to each other. Provide support as and when required
  • Check for understanding through CCQ
  • Appreciate student effort, nominate active participants
  • Highlight on what went well in the activity and areas that can be improved
Works Consulted
  • Combs, A.W. (1982). Affective education or none at all. Educational Leadership, 39(7), 494-497.
  • Patterson, C.H. (1973). Humanistic Education. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to Learn. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
  • Rogers, C.R. & Freiberg, H.J. (1994). Freedom to Learn (3rd Ed). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Macmillan


During this session you will
  1. Gain a basic theoretical understanding of how pictures and stories can improve learning experiences
  2. Receive practical strategies to incorporate pictures and stories while planning: Purpose
  3. Identify interaction patterns between content and the learner
  • According to this theory there two kinds of cognitive systems one specialized for the representation and processing of nonverbal objects/events (i.e., imagery), and the other specialized for dealing with language.
  • Adding visuals to a verbal description can make the presented ideas more concrete, and provides two ways of understanding the presented ideas.
  • Dual coding is about more than just adding pictures. Instead, the visuals should be meaningful, and students should have enough time to integrate the two representations
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses.
  • A stimulus (pictures & stories) is something that causes a reaction, while a response is the reaction (student learning) to a stimulus. The connection between the two is called an S-R bond, or stimulus-response bond. 
  • A series of S-R connections can be chained together if they belong to the same action sequence
  • Aim: Pictures and stories have to align with the learning outcome
  • Purpose: They must have a task planned e.g.: Matching exercise, fills ups, small group discussion etc.
  • Utility: Related to the theme and topic. Purely informative purposes
  • Whole class
  • Group
  • Small group
  • Think-pair-share
  • Individual

Pictures and stories can be effectively used as triggers for teaching complex ideas through an interactive approach. Adapting pictures and stories according to the concepts handled increases a student's willingness to communicate and express thoughts and feelings. It encourages active participation, critical thinking and interpersonal skills in students.

Sample Activity
Story as a trigger in teaching mathematics: -
  • A group of school children were taken on a field trip to a zoo. They saw tigers, lions, bears, elephants, monkeys, pythons, crocodiles, giraffes, zebras and many other animals. They also saw colourful parrots peacocks, mynahs and cranes. The children had enjoyed themselves in the zoo.
  • While returning in the bus, Ravi said that had seen five lions and two crocodiles however, rani replied that there were six lions and four crocodiles. Latha joined the conversation along with Joseph and said that she had seen ten peacocks and four cranes. Joseph replied that he had seen only two pythons, two mynahs, two elephants, two bears and a lion. Finally all the twenty students got into the bus and were given 40 chocolate bars to divide among themselves.
With this story teacher can ask as many questions as possible to teach additions, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Works Consulted
  • Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations. New York: Oxford University Press
  • Thorndike, E. (1913). Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Thorndike, E. (1921). The Teacher’s Word Book. New York: Teachers College.


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